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Adverbul in engleza

Adverbul in engleza (ca si in romana) este partea de vorbire care :

- Arata o caracteristica a unei actiuni, a unei stari  sau a unei calitati;

- Poate avea o categorie gramaticala a comparatiei.

Ca si in limba romana,  si in limba engleza exista o clasificare a adverbelor:

- adverbe de mod (Adverbs of manner);

- adverbe de loc (Adverbs of place);

-adverbe de timp (Adverbs of time);

-mai pot fi considerate si adverbele de durata, adverbele de frecventa, adverbele de comparatie si cele de probabilitate.

Aspecte generale:

1.) Particulele adverbiale sunt de 3 sensuri:

- care repeta intelesul verbului pe care il insotesc

Exemple: to fall down, to sink in, to spread out.

- care adauga ceva la intelesul verbului pe care il insotesc:

Exemple: to come in, to go away, to take off.

- care schimba intelesul verbului pe care il insotesc si formeaza impreuna phrasal verbs.

Exemple: down, in, off, on, out, over, up, with

2.) Functiile principale ale adverbelor:

a.) adverbul in engleza determina sau caracterizeaza un verb la modul personal sau nepersonal( infinitiv , gerund sau participiu)

Exemple:

-personal - I’ll never forget the wonderfull time we had during the week end spent together.

-neporsonal(infinitiv) - I will learn to speak English fluently if I practice more.

-nepersonal(participiu prezent) - I am limping because of my ill fitting boots.

b.) adverbul in engleza determina calitatea, dimensiunea sau modul adjectivelor pe care le precede.

Exemple de adverbe:

almost, approximately, at all, a little, completely, just, fully, less, much, most, such, slightly

c.) paote determina si un substantiv sau pronume cand se refera la loc sau timp

Exemple de adverbe: here, there, above, near

3.) Forma adverbelor in engleza :

a.) Adverbe simple in engleza

Adverbele simple din engleza pot fi despartite in alte parti. Exista un numar mare de adverbe care provin din adjective, fara sa-si schimbe forma, dar cu sensuri diferite.

- din adjective prin conversiune, deci nu isi schimba forma.

-  din adjective carora li s-a adaugat sufixul -ly

- din alte parti de vorbire (participii, substantive sau alte adverbe) carora li s-a adaugat sufixul -ly

Adverbele in engleza se formeaza de cele mai multe ori prin adaugarea lui -ly la forma de singular a adjectivului ( quick-quickly, slow-slowly).

Cateva adverbe precum: afar, anew, below, aloud, sunt derivate din adjective prin adaugarea unui prefix.

Exemple:

We saw them afar = I-am vazut de departe.

Let’s start anew = Sa o luam de la inceput.

Alte adverbe sunt derivate din substantive, prin adaugarea unor prefixe sau sufixe: across, away, besides, daily, weekly.

b.) Adverbe compuse in engleza

Adverbele compuse sunt formate din doua sau mai multe elemente, de exemplu: always, hereby, henceforth, however, nowhere, indoors, outside, sometimes, nevertheless.

I have to buy this handbag however much it costs = Trebuie sa cumpar aceasta poseta oricat ar costa.

c.) Adverbe complexe in engleza

Adverbele complexe sunt formate din doau sau mai multe cuvinte :

- adverb + adverb : soon after, long after, over there, down there, up there, right round, near by, close by, once again, long since, upside down.

-  prepozitie + adverb: at once, before long, at last, at least, at most, etc.

- adverb + and + adverb : by and by, here and there, now and then, in and out, on and off, on and on, now and again, again and again, once and for all.

d.) Locutiuni adverbiale

Locutiunile adverbiale exprima timpul , modul sau intensitatea unei actiuni , de exemplu: at present, at the time, in  short, in the long run, once upon a time, on purpose, at large, for better, no doubt, etc.

Once upon a time lived a king who had three daughters = A fost odata ca niciodata un imparat care avea trei fiice.

 

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