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Pluralul substantivelor in engleza

Substantivele in engleza (the English nouns) pot fi impartite si in:

  • countable = numarabile, substantive care au plural: a letter – two letters – three letters etc. Ele se formeaza punand un articol (a, an) sau un numeral (two, a hundred, a thousand) inaintea substantivului.
  • uncountable = nenumarabile, substantive care nu au plural: information, water, rice, music etc.

Substantivele care pot fi numarate trebuie puse la forma de plural. In general, aceasta se formeaza adaugand un “s” la sfarsit:

window – windows ; street – streets ; mountain – mountains ; car – cars

Substantivele care se termina in chsshx sau z au pluralul in “-es“:

match – matches ; class – classes ; fish – fishes ; complex – complexes ; waltz – waltzes

Substantivele care se termina in “y” precedat de o consoana formeaza pluralul in “i” sau “es“:

city – cities ; country – countries ; bounty – bounties

Unele substantivele care se termina in “f” sau “fe” formeaza pluralul in “ves“:

shelf – shelves ; wolf – wolves ; life – lives ; wife – wives

La fel se intampla si cu unele substantive ce se termina in “o” – marca pluralului este in “es“:

potato – potatoes ; hero – heroes ; echo – echoes

Neologismele care vin mai ales din latina si greaca isi pastreaza pluralul initial:

stimulus – stimuli ; nucleus – nuclei ; phenomenon – phenomena ; spectrum – spectra

Pentru substantivele compuse legate prin cratima, doar ultimele cuvinte din sintagma se trec la plural (check-ins). Cu toate acestea , unele dintre ele formeaza adaugand un “s” la primul substantiv: son-in-law  -  sons-in-law ; runner-up  -  runners-up.

De asemenea, exista un numar de substantive care au o forma de plural neregulata:

foot – feet ; child – children ; man – men ; tooth – teeth

In sfarsit, exista si substantive care nu isi schimba forma la plural:

deer – deer ; sheep – sheep

Exemple in care substantivele sunt trecute la pliral :

Children love candies.

Copiii iubesc dulciurile.

My daughters-in-law are both American.

Ambele mele nurori  sunt americance.

All buses pass through the center of the two cities.

Toate autobuzele trec prin centrul celor doua orase.

The door is solidly bolted against thieves.

Usa este foarte bine zavorata impotriva hotilor.

Pluralul substantivelor in engleza: articol gratis de gramatica limbii engleze prezentat de catre www.in-engleza.ro

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