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Vorbirea directa si indirecta in engleza

Vorbirea Directa si Vorbirea Indirecta in engleza (Direct Speech and Reported Speech)

Vorbirea Directa in engleza se refera la cuvintele, afirmatiile spuse de catre o anumita persoana intr-un anumit loc si timp, acestea putand fi redate prin Vorbirea Indirecta, intr-unul din urmatoarele cazuri:

  • de catre o alta persoana, in momentul imediat urmator
  • de catre o alta persoana, in alt moment
  • de catre o alta persoana, in alt loc
  • de catre o alta persoana, in alt loc si in alt moment.

Observatie! Relatarea unor afirmatii la vorbirea indirecta impune schimbarea persoanei:

My friend: “I will try to come and help you this week”.

My friend said he would try to come and help me that week.

In acelasi timp, schimbarea locului si a momentului presupune si schimbarea adverbelor de loc si de timp, si a pronumelor si adjectivelor demonstrative, dupa cum urmeaza:

 

Vorbirea Directa/Vorbirea Indirecta

this                               that/the

these                           those/the

here                            there

now                             then

today                         that day

yesterday                 the day before

tomorrow                 the next/following day

last week                   the previous week

a year ago                 a year before/the previous year

 “We moved to France a year ago” Mary told me.

Mary told me they had moved to France a year before.

Schimbarea momentului in cadrul Vorbirii Indirecte mai impune si schimbarea timpurilor din propozitii. Iata cum se schimba timpurile din Vorbirea Directa, in Vorbirea Indirecta:

Vorbirea Directa                          Vorbirea Indirecta

Present Simple                              Past Simple

Present Continuous                    Past Continuous

Present Perfect                             Past Perfect

Present Perfect Continuous    Past Perfect Continuous

Future                                              Future In the Past

Past Simple                                    Past Perfect

Past Continuous                          Past Perfect Continuous

Past Perfect                                  Past Perfect

Timpurile verbale ramand aceleasi in trecerea la vorbirea indirecta in urmatoarele cazuri:

  • cand la prezent se exprima o actiune repetata care este valabila si in momentul vorbirii indirecte:

 “We go to the sea every summer” said Tim.

Tim said that they go to sea every summer.

  • cand la prezent se exprima un fapt universal valabil:

“Water boils at 100 Celsius degrees” the teacher said.

The teacher told us that water boils at 100 Celsius degrees.

  • cand trecutul simplu (Past Simple) se refera la actiuni repetate in trecut:

“We visited our grandparents every week when we lived in the village” Sarah told us.

Sarah told us that they visited their grandparents every week when they lived in the village.

  • cand se folosesc formulele: wish, it’s high time, would rather

“It’s high time you went home”  John’s mother said.

John’s mother said it was high time I went home.

In ce priveste verbele modale, acestea se schimba dupa cum urmeaza la Vorbirea Indirecta:

Vorbirea Directa                      Vorbirea Indirecta

can                                                 could

could                                            could

may                                              might

might                                          might

shall                                            should

should                                        should

would                                        would

must have/could have      must have/could have

must (obligatie)                    had to/would have to

“Can I give you a call tomorrow?” she asked.

She asked whether she could give me a call the next day.

Say si Tell

In cazul propozitiilor afirmative, predicatul din propozitia principala este to say sau to tell somebody:

“We are going to play tennis tonight” Sue says.

Sue said that they were going to play tennis that night.

“I will purchase a new laptop this week” Mike told me.

Mike told me he would purchase a new laptop that week.

Mai sunt insa si alte verbe care se pot folosi ca si predicat in propozitia principala, in cadrul vorbirii indirecte:

to accept, to admit, to agree, to believe, to conclude, to comment, to deny, to find, to inform, to mention, to promise, to remember, to think, to wish, to write.

 

If/Whether

Folosim If/Whether dupa predicatul propozitiei principale exprimat printr-unul din verbele urmatoare:  ask, want to know, wonder, did not say, in cazul intrebarilor de tip Yes/No.

“Are you tired” aunt Helen asked.

Aunt Helen asked whether I was tired.

 

Propozitii:

1. “I will call you as soon as I get home” she told him.

She told him she would call him as soon as she got home.

2. “Don’t get upset” mother said to her son.

Mother told her son not to get upset.

3. “You must be ready by noon” Sandra told Mike.
Sandra told Mike he had to be ready by noon.

4. “What are your plans for the future?” the teacher asked her students.

The teacher asked her students what their plans for the future were.

5. “You passed the examination with a high score” the professor informed the candidate.

The professor informed the candidate that he had passed the examination with a high score.

6.”If I were you, I would raise some money for a car”.

He advised her to raise some money for the car.

 

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